Short-Term and Long-Term Disability Insurance
If you can't work because you get sick or injured, disability insurance will pay part of your income. You may be able to get insurance through your employer. You can also buy your own policy.
Types of Disability Policies
There are two types of disability policies.
Employers who offer coverage may provide short-term coverage, long-term coverage, or both.
If you plan to buy your own policy, shop around and ask:
Federal Disability Programs
Two Social Security Administration programs pay benefits to people with disabilities. Learn about Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) and Supplemental Security Insurance (SSI).
Social Security Benefits for People with Disabilities
The Social Security Administration (SSA) has two programs that provide benefits to people with disabilities:
Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). SSDI is for people who have earned enough Social Security work credits within a certain time period
Supplemental Security Income (SSI). SSI is for people with disabilities or who are 65 or older with little to no income and resources. Although the Social Security Administration runs the SSI program, SSI is not Social Security. It is funded separately from Social Security and SSDI.
Definition of Disability
To qualify for either program as a person with a disability, you must meet SSA’s definition of disability, which says:
Social Security uses a step-by-step process to decide if you have a disability. Partial and short-term disabilities do not meet SSA’s standard and are not eligible for benefits.
Benefit Eligibility Screening Tool
You can use the Benefit Eligibility Screening Tool to find out quickly whether you may be eligible for SSDI or SSI disability benefits.
Learn More About Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)
When you work and pay Social Security taxes, you earn Social Security “work credits,” up to four a year depending on your income. To be eligible for SSDI, you must have accumulated a certain number of work credits, some of them relatively recently. The number of work credits you need is based on your age when you stopped working due to your disability.
Benefits for Family Members
Your spouse or former spouse and your children may be eligible for benefits when you start receiving SSDI in some situations.
Applying for SSDI
You can apply for benefits online, by phone, or in person.
If your application is denied, you can appeal the decision.
If your application is approved, you’ll start receiving benefits about six months after your disability began. You’ll automatically be enrolled in Medicare two years after you begin receiving SSDI payments.
Returning to Work
You can generally return to work without losing your SSDI benefits if you earn less than what SSA considers a “substantial” amount. In 2018, average earnings of $1,180 or more per month are usually considered substantial.
You can try out your ability to return to work for at least nine months without losing your SSDI benefits or Medicare coverage. See the booklet Working While Disabled: How We Can Help for more information.
Learn More About Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
SSI benefits are for adults and children with a disability who have little income or resources. Seniors 65 and older without a disability may be eligible for benefits if they meet the income limits. People who are eligible to receive SSDI may be eligible for SSI too.
In most states, people who receive SSI also receive Medicaid coverage. Many states also provide supplemental payments to certain SSI recipients.
Defining Disability for SSI
Adults under 65 must meet SSA’s definition of disability.
For a child, disability means:
Applying for SSI
Adults can apply for SSI by phone, in person at a local Social Security office, or in some cases online. To apply for SSI for a child, you can start the process online but will need to complete it either in person or by phone.
Explore this listing of SSI topics to learn more detailed information.
Going to Work
SSI work incentives can help you go to work by lowering the chances that you’ll lose your SSI benefit or Medicaid coverage. You can earn $65 a month without it affecting your cash benefit. Beyond that, your SSI payment will go down $1 for every $2 you earn.
When your earnings, combined with any other income you have, exceed your state’s SSI income limits, your SSI payments will stop for those months. Your payments will start again for any month your income drops to less than the SSI limits. You can learn more in the booklet Working While Disabled: How We Can Help.