Voting and Election Laws
Federal election laws help protect the election process. Get information about your voting rights, campaign donations limits, and how to report federal election crimes.
Voting Rights Laws and Constitutional Amendments
U.S. election laws date back to Article 1 of the Constitution. This gave states the responsibility of overseeing federal elections. Many Constitutional amendments and federal laws to protect voting rights have been passed since then.
Constitutional Amendments Affecting Voting Rights
The 24th Amendment, ratified in 1964, eliminated poll taxes. The tax had been used in some states to keep African Americans from voting in federal elections.
The 26th Amendment, ratified in 1971, lowered the voting age for all elections to 18.
Federal Voting Rights Laws
Federal laws passed over the years help protect Americans’ right to vote and make it easier for citizens to exercise that right:
State Voter ID Laws
Two-thirds of states require you to show some form of identification before you’re allowed to vote. Learn more about states' voter ID requirements.
Voter Fraud, Voter Suppression, and Other Election Crimes
Learn where to report voter fraud and voting rights violations that you witness or suspect.
What are federal election crimes?
Federal election crimes fall into three broad categories:
Many states have strengthened their voter ID requirements to try to stop voter fraud.
Is it illegal for someone to ask me who I voted for? Is it illegal for me to tell?
You have the right to cast your vote in private. It’s up to you whether you want to share your choices with others.
There’s no law preventing someone from asking you who you voted for.
How do I report voter fraud or voter suppression?
If you suspect voter fraud, report it to your state or territorial election office. You can also report it to:
If you witness or suspect voter intimidation or suppression, there are three ways you can report it:
Is Voting Mandatory in the United States?
In the U.S., no one is required by law to vote in any local, state, or presidential election. According to the U.S. Constitution, voting is a right and a privilege. While many constitutional amendments have been ratified since the first election, none of them made voting mandatory for U.S. citizens.
Voter accessibility laws ensure that people with disabilities or language barriers are able to vote.
If you know you’ll need accommodations on Election Day, contact your state or local election office to find out what to expect at your polling place.
Laws and Accommodations That Help Voters With Disabilities
Several federal laws protect the voting rights of Americans with disabilities. These include the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Help America Vote Act (HAVA).
Voters with disabilities have the right to:
Vote in private, without help
Have an accessible polling place with voting machines for voters with disabilities
Polling places must have:
Wheelchair-accessible voting booths
Entrances and doorways at least 32 inches wide
Handrails on all stairs
Voting equipment for people who are blind or visually impaired
If you have a disability, you may:
Seek help from poll workers trained to use an accessible voting machine, or
Bring someone to help you vote
You can also ask your election office what other options you have.
Some states offer “curbside voting," when a poll worker brings everything you need to vote to your car.
Some set up polling places at long-term care facilities.
Local organizations may provide transportation to the polls.
Many states let people with disabilities vote by mail.
Accommodations That Help Voters Who Need Language Assistance
The Election Assistance Commission (EAC) helps people overcome language barriers to voting.
Federal law also lets you bring someone to help you if you can't read or write.
Federal Campaign Finance Laws
Federal law puts limits on campaign contributions to candidates for president and Congress. It requires the candidates to report all the money their campaigns receive and spend.
How Much Can You Contribute to a Candidate for Federal Office?
Most individuals can donate up to $2,800 per election, per candidate during the 2019-2020 elections. That means you can donate up to $2,800 each to:
Learn which organizations and individuals are not allowed to donate to federal candidates.
Financial Reporting Requirements for Candidates in Federal Elections
The Federal Election Campaign Act requires candidates to report:
The law applies to candidates for president as well as for the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives.
The Federal Election Commission’s Role in Campaign Finance Law
The Federal Election Commission (FEC) oversees enforcement of the Federal Election Campaign Act. The FEC:
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Last Updated: May 22, 2020